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MOVING AROUND

Initially you will be in the top-level (/).

1

FInd out who you are with the who am i command.

 

Who are you, and what is your connection?

2

List the directory with the ls command.

 

What directories are avialable?

3

List the directory with the ls -l command.

 

Outline the attributes for some of the files?

4

Change the current directory to /bin the cd bin command.

 

List some of the programs in this directory.

5

Move back to the top-level with cd .. or cd /.

6

Move into other directories using the cd command, and list their contents with ls.

The key directories are /bin (where many of the commands are stored), /etc (where many of the configuration files are stored), /sbin (where extra networking commands are stored), /usr (where the user files are stored) and /dev (where the device drivers are stored).

LOCATING IMPORTANT NETWORKING FILES

Search the directories and find the following files: ifconfig, dhcpinfo, inetd.conf, ls, cd, mnttab, network, services, hosts and protocols.

CONFIGURING THE INTERFACE

The ifconfig command can be used to view the network settings on the interface card.

1

Enter the ifconfig command, and view the help page.

2

Enter the ifconfig -a command, and determine the network configuration

 

List the network settings.

3

Enter the ping 110.11.2.3 command, and determine if the network is responding.

3

Enter the ifconfig release eth0 command, and to release the IP address from the interface.

3

Enter the ping 110.11.2.3 command, and determine if the network is responding.

4

Enter the ifconfig start eth0 command, and to re-gain the IP address for the interface.

4

Enter the ping 110.11.2.3 command, and determine if the network is responding.

SHOWING THE ARP CACHE

The ARP table contains the mapping of IP addresses to MAC addresses, on the local network.

1

Enter the arp command, and determine the options used with arp.

2

Enter the arp -a command, to show the current arp table

 

List some of the MAC addresses and IP mappings.

SHOWING PROCESSES

The ps command can be used to show currently running processes.

1

Enter the ps command, and determine the currently running processes for the user.

2

Enter the ps -al command, and all the running processes

 

List some of the processes.

3

Enter the ps -ef command, for a more complete list of running processes

 

List some of the processes.

LISTING KEY NETWORK FILES

Many of the key network configuration files are in the /etc directory.

1

Go to the /etc directory.

2

Enter the cat hosts command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

3

Enter the cat passwd command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

4

Enter the cat protocols command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

5

Enter the cat rpc command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

6

Enter the cat services command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

7

Enter the cat aliases command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

8

Enter the cat inetd.conf command, and determine the Internet servers which are started.

 

List some the contents.

9

Enter the cat inittab command, and determine the system initiatisation events.

 

List some the contents.

Showing open connections

As with Microsoft Windows, the netstat command can be used to view the currently open ports.

1

Enter the netstat command.

 

List some of the open ports, for both the source and the destination.

2

Enter the netstat -i command to list information on the interfaces.

 

List the information given.

3

Enter the netstat -nr command to list the routing table.

 

List the information given.

4

Enter the netstat -m command to show the buffers.

 

List the information given.

5

Enter the netstat -s command to show protocol summaries.

 

List the information given.

6

Enter the rpcinfo command to show RPC information.

 

List the information given.

6

Enter the rpcinfo -p command to show RPC information.

 

List the information given.

/usr/sbin

Many important commands are located in /usr/sbin

1

Go to the /usr/sbin directory.

2

Enter the ls command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

NDS configuration

Novell NDS is used in many large organisation networks, and will often require to be linked with UNIX.

1

Go to the /etc directory.

2

Enter the cat nds.conf command, and determine its contents.

 

List some the contents.

File type display

The file command can be used to determine the type of a file.

1

Go to the /etc directory.

2

Enter the file * command, and determine the listing

 

List some of the file types.

Netmasks and networks

The netmasks command can be used to setup the default netmask

1

Go to the /etc directory.

2

Enter the cat netmasks command, and determine the listing

3

Enter the cat networks command, and determine the listing

FTP server

The inetd.conf file is used to start the FTP daemon (in.ftpd).

1

Go into the /etc directory, and list the inetd.conf file.
Identify the line which runs the FTP server.

2

List the services file, and determine the port which the FTP server uses.

3

List the passwd file, and identify that the ftp user exists (as this allows anonymous FTP).

4

List the ftpusers file. This file contains the users who are not allowed to FTP into the server.

5

Change directory to the top-level, then go into /usr and then into the sbin directory.
Locate the tcpd and in.ftpd programs (these are the FTP internet services).

4

Use ps -ef, and identify the FTP server daemon.

6

Using cd ~ftp, go to the default FTP directory.
List some of the folders and directories using in this folder.

TELNET server

The inetd.conf file is used to start the TELNET daemon (in.telnetd).

1

Go into the /etc directory, and list the inetd.conf file.
Identify the line which runs the TELNET server.

2

List the services file, and determine the port which the TELNET server uses.

3

List the ftpusers file. This file contains the users who are not allowed to FTP into the server.

4

Change directory to the top-level, then go into /usr and then into the sbin directory.
Locate the tcpd and in.telnetd programs (these are the TELNET internet services).

5

Use ps -ef, and identify the TELNET server daemon.

Drives mounted

UNIX allows drives to be mounted onto the local file system.

6

Enter the nfsstat command to show NFS information.

 

List the information given.

6

Enter the df command to show mounted systems.

 

List the information given.

6

Enter the mount command to show mounted systems.

 

List the information given.

8

Go to /etc, and enter the cat mnttab command, to show the drives which were mounted automatically.

 

List some the contents.

DHCP files

DHCP allows nodes to be allocated IP addresses based on their MAC address. In a DHCP system, the node broadcasts for a DHCP server. The server then returns back:

- Client IP address (such as 152.10.6.1)
- Subnet mask (such as 255.255.255.0)
- Default router (such as 152.10.8.254)
- DNS domain name (such as mydomain.com)
- NIS domain name (such as fred.mydomain.com)

These are defined in the dhcptab file, such as:

mydomain m \
:Broadcst=152.10.7.255:Subnet=255.255.255.0:MTU=1500: \
:Router=152.10.7.254:NISdmain=mydomain:NISservs=152.10.6.234: \
:Timeserv=152.10.6.234:UTCoffst=0: \
:Message=Sample Message:Hostname: \
:SMTPserv=152.10.6.234:POP3serv=152.10.6.234: \
:DNSdmain=mydomain.com: \
:DNSserv=152.10.6.33 152.10.6.90

and the IP address is defined in the associated network file (152_10_6_0), such as:

03040014cc6184 01 152.10.6.1 152.10.6.30 -1 mydomain fred
03040189b45004 01 152.10.6.2 152.10.6.30 -1 mydomain bert
0304007c112fe3 01 152.10.6.3 152.10.6.30 -1 mydomain martin

which will assign an address in the range 152.10.6.1 to 152.10.6.30 to the MAC addresses of 03040014cc6184, 03040189b45004 and 0304007c112fe3.

1

Go into the /var folder with cd /var

2

Go into the /var/dhcp folder with cd dhcp

 

List the files in this folder.

3

Enter the cat dhcptab command, to list the contents of dhcptab

 

Outline its contents

4

Enter the cat 152_10_6_0 command, to list the contents of 152_10_6_0. This relates to the 152.10.6.0 subnet.

 

Outline its contents. Which MAC addresses have been registered?

5

Run dhcpconfig to start the dhcp server.

6

Enter the ps -ef command, to list the running processes

 

Is the in.dhcpd process running?

Other supported commands:

cat release
cat printers.conf

cat resolv.conf
cat vfstab
echo text
set - Show shell variables.
time